Lehmann, Christian. 1982. On the function of the agreement. To Barlow, Michael & Charles A. Ferguson (eds.), Agreement in natural language: Approaches, theories, descriptions, 55-65. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. In most of the SLs studied so far, speech speakers can be associated with the referencian loci (R-Loci) in the signal room (Figure 1). These Loci are either actual locations of current speakers, or any location assigned to non-existent speakers using an index (which is glossed as INDEX). Note that “arbitrary” must be considered semantically arbitrary; it should not be understood that the choice of places cannot be subject to grammatical and pragmatic principles (specific to language) (see Cormier et al. In a preliminary report, based on 116 index forms from a large corpus, Johnston (2010) indicated that about 90% of the time of the points in relation to the recipient were accompanied by a look at the recipient. References to an unsent addressed speaker were accompanied in about 45% of the time by the recipient`s gaze and in about 40% of the time by a look at the goal (the remaining 15% of the time looked in another unspecified direction). No basic information is available from the view during the points to the auto or un-shown characters. The index that the verb and its argument share is realized by a kind of reference to places determined on the surface by the link with the parlinguist gesture.
Having concluded that directionality is personal marking, we now look at other challenges for an analysis of “convergence” per se. . . .
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